Rome – The Change Over of the Republic

In the late 6th century BCE, the period of the change over of the Republic, Rome transitioned from a monarchy to a Republican government. From this, the city progressed to take control of the entire Italian peninsula and a great range of parts of the Mediterranean countries.

Rome is known to be driven by its military force but before the military force was so dominant in Rome’s culture, the city had to develop a government that would appropriately express and respect the concerns of its citizens, as well as ensuring that not one individual was given or took all control to sustain a balance of power. At the beginning of the new republican government ruling, the great families – the patricians – took control of the Republic[1]. This is because the patricians believed that they were more capable of ruling than the remaining citizens – the plebians[2]. Although many of the peblians were as wealthy as the partricians, they were denied any political authority or say in who by or how they were ruled. Due to this governmental ruling arrangement, tension was developed and increased between the partricians and the peblians, especially because most of the military force was provided by the peblians. The peblians did not want to take part in a war that was mostly beneficial to the partricians which resulted in a strike in 494 BCE. The strike consisted of the peblians assembling outside of Rome and refusing to move until they were granted governmental authority. As a result, the plebians were granted with goverenmental authority and developed their own council. This movement is known as the Conflict of Orders or the First Succession of the Plebs[3]

As stated earlier, the military force plays a large role in the sustaining and identity of Rome as it is the foundation for building and defending Rome’s huge empire. The Roman military forces were known for its discipline, strategies and organisation which contributed to making Rome’s military one of the most effective fighting forces in military history[4]. The Romans took the military forces and its role in Roman society very seriously as specific recruitment processes were put in place and war strategies were developed and implemented in order to protect and expand the Roman Empire[5]. The military is the main reason for the success of the Roman Empire.

The spirit of the Roman military is shaped by the belief that the soldiers are the sons of Mars – the god of war. Mars was one of the most celebrated and worshipped gods in Rome. There are many temples and locations dedicated to the god of war such as the temple on the Capitol – the temple of Mars Gradivus – the temple located on the Forum Augustus – the temple of Mars Ultor – and the Campus Matrius situated outside the city walls. The temple of Mars Gradivus was the area in which the Roman military army gathered before they went to war and the Campus Martius was were the army was trained. It is clear that the Romans highly valued Mars as they honoured him by dedicating these many areas to him and using those areas to train their own men. The Romans also showed their respect for Mars through many festivals hosted in his honour and by naming the month March (Martius) after him. The Romans respect Mars so much due to the fact that the military plays such a large role in the identity of Rome[6]. As can be seen in Appendix A, a statue of Mars, the great warrior is dressed in a full military uniform including weapon equipment. His feet and right hand are missing from the statue which could be a result of forced removal from its original standing place. In most images or statues of Mars, he is depicted with a metal spear but the spear is not included in the image of the statue. This could be due to the fact that it is most likely that the spear was held in his missing right hand. Also, this stone carving was most likely painted to appear more realistic and life-like but the colouring may have faded as a result of weathering and age[7].

The story of the twin brothers, Remus and Romulus, speaks of the establishment of the city of Rome. They boys were born of Princess Rhea Silvia and their father was Mars, the god of war. The king of the land was afraid the boys would take his thrown when they grew up so he ordered to have the children thrown into the Tiber River. A she-wolf found the two boys who protected and cared for them. A woodpecker also cared for the children by helping find food for them. Eventually, the boys were found by passing shepherds who took in the twin brothers. The story ends with Romulus founding Rome. This story has been passed down orally to Roman decedents which impacts the accuracy of the story. Fortunately, this does not impact the importance it holds to the Roman military[8]. This story, although mythical, holds great significance in the identity of the Roman military as the boys had wolf like characteristics such as strength, courage and leadership which were integrated heavily into the Roman military forces morals and spirit[9].

As the Romans highly valued and worshipped the god of war they ensured that their military tactics were of high intelligence and the military force were held of high regard. Highly strict recruitment protocols were put in place to ensure that soldiers were of a high standard. Soldiers of the Manipular army would be enrolled for a set amount of time which resulted in a professional standing army for Rome. Most Roman soldiers were recruited from the age of eighteen to twenty years old. Conscription into the army occurred through the cities as, at this time, the amount of volunteers was minimal. During this time it did not mater if you were a Roman citizen or no, as long as you were freeborn. This was taken very seriously as a non freeborn man was not to be representing the Roman Empire:

Trajan to Pliny:

“[An officer had discovered two newly enrolled soldiers were slaves]… it needs to be investigated whether they deserve capital punishment. It depends whether they were volunteers or conscripts or given as substitutes. If they are conscripts, the recruiting officer was at fault; if substitutes, those who gave them are to blame; if they presented themselves in full awareness of their own status, that is to be held against them. It is hardly relevant that they have not yet been assigned to units. The day on which they were first approved and took the oath required the truth of their origin from them[10].”

The Romans took great pride in their army and their recruitment process to ensure that the soldiers were best qualified for their duty to making Rome a successful Empire[11].

The Roman military took part in many wars in order to protect and strengthen it Empire. The destruction of Masada is a great example of Roman power. The destruction of Masada is the story of how the Jews attempted to stand up to the Romans to take back their homes and to be free. The Jews uprising negatively impacted the Romans first stage of war resulting in the Romans showing their strength and fighting back to maintain the Empire the military helped build. Duncan Campbell states, “The defenders of Masada simply had to be killed to reinforce an ancient imperialist superpower’s reputation of invincibility.” This shows that the Romans were known for their power and they fought back against the Jews to remind them that they are in control and hold the power[12].

Overall, the Roman military made Rome a successful Empire through its strategic military tactics and spirit, and through the many wars they took part in to further develop, protect and strengthen the Empire.

 

Appendices

Appendix A: Statue of Mars

yorkshire-museum-roman-mars-640x640

Dowson, T. (2014). Yorkshire Museum’s Roman Statue of the God Mars – Archaeology Travel. Archaeology Travel. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://archaeology-travel.com/friday-find/yorkshire-museums-roman-statue-of-the-god-mars/

 

 

 

References

[1] WASSON, D. (2016). Roman Republic. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Republic/

[2] Wasson, D. (2016). Patrician. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Patrician/

[3] WASSON, D. (2016). Roman Republic. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Republic/

[4] Lloyd, J. (2016). Roman Army. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Army/

[5] Roman Military. (2016). Ancientmilitary.com. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancientmilitary.com/roman-military.htm

[6] Mars – God of War – Crystalinks. (2016). Crystalinks.com. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.crystalinks.com/marsrome.html

[7] Dowson, T. (2014). Yorkshire Museum’s Roman Statue of the God Mars – Archaeology Travel. Archaeology Travel. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://archaeology-travel.com/friday-find/yorkshire-museums-roman-statue-of-the-god-mars/

[8] Chowdhury, R. (2014). The Sons of Mars. Long Long Time Ago. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.longlongtimeago.com/once-upon-a-time/myths/roman-myths/the-sons-of-mars/

[9] Martin, C. (2016). The Gods of the Imperial Roman Army | History Today. Historytoday.com. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.historytoday.com/colin-martin/gods-imperial-roman-army

[10] Lloyd, J. (2016). Roman Army. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 August 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Army/

[11] ibid

[12] Campbell, D. (2016). Wars between the Jews and Romans. Livius.org. Retrieved 31 August 2016, from http://www.livius.org/ja-jn/jewish_wars/jwar05.html

Rome – The Change Over of the Republic

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: SUSTAINABILITY

As stated in the Australian Curriculum, “The Sustainability priority provides the opportunity for students to develop an appreciation of the necessity of acting for a more sustainable future and so address the ongoing capacity of Earth to maintain all life and meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations.” It is important for students to understand the meaning and role of sustainability to increase the likelihood of a more sustainable future.

An example of how sustainability can be intergraded within education is through the teaching of deforestation. Deforestation is the removal of expansive areas of forest lands by humans due to the increasing human population which further increases the demand of socio-economic development (Bradshaw 2011). Nearly 50% of the earth’s original forests have been cleared since the industrial age. According to eSchoolToday, although their has been an increase in awareness due to the improved educational system, deforestation has not decreased significantly because of the large amount of people still participating in the practice for “personal gains” (eSchoolToday 2010). By incorporating sustainability into the Australian Curriculum, it decreases the chance of unsustainable practices occurring.

Forests are crucial to human development as they contain many different habitats which increases the areas biodiversity. This rich diversity results in a greater possibility for “medical discoveries, economic development and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change” (eSchoolToday 2010). Forests also contain ecosystems and through the process of land clearing, many homes of species are destroyed resulting in an increase in the likelihood of that particular species going extinct within that area (eSchoolToday 2010.). Deforestation has many negative impacts such as soil erosion destruction, implications within the water cycle, loss of biodiversity and an increase in C02 emissions which contributes to climate change (eSchoolToday 2010).

The graph displayed below shows that Queensland has the highest deforestation rate within Australia from 1995 to 2005 whereas the Northern Territory has only cleared 1.13% of the amount Queensland has destroyed (ConservationBytes 2011). Clearly, it is crucial that the awareness of the negative impacts deforestation has should increase in awareness in hopes for a more sustainable future.

Figure 1 (ConservationBytes 2011)
Figure 1
(ConservationBytes 2011)

Australia has destroyed almost 40% of its original forests and a large quantity of the remaining vegetation is highly fragmented. If clear and effective policies regarding the restoration of degraded forests and the protection of the current existing forest are not implemented immediately, Australia is at risk of loosing most of the remaining endemic biodiversity due to the large destruction of ecosystems (Bradshaw 2011).

Reference List:

ACARA. 2013. “Cross-Curriculum Priorities.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.acara.edu.au/curriculum/cross_curriculum_priorities.html.

ConservationBytes. 2011. “Deforestation Partly to Blame for Queensland Floods.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://conservationbytes.com/2011/01/17/deforestation-qld-floods/.

Corey J. A. Bradshaw. 2011. “Little left TO lose: deforestation and forest degradation in Australia since European colonization.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://jpe.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/109.full.

eSchoolToday. 2010. “Effects of Deforestation.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://eschooltoday.com/forests/problems-of-deforestation.html.

eSchoolToday. 2010. “Importance of Forests.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://eschooltoday.com/forests/importance-of-forests.html.

eSchoolToday. 2010. “What is Deforestation.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://eschooltoday.com/forests/what-is-deforestation.html.

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: SUSTAINABILITY

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIGHT ISLANDER HISTORIES AND CULTURES

The Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander identity and culture is valued as highly important due to its significance to the Australian culture, so much so that it has been declared as a part of the Cross-curricular priorities within the Australian curriculum. Within Geography, maps are utilised frequently for analysis and evaluation purposes. The map below is an example of how Indigenous people view and mark out Australia (Anchor 2015). This is substantially different to the standard Australian map which is has grouped parts of Australia into states rather than different tribes (Ezilon 2015). By incorporating the comparison of the different maps into a geography lesson, it would increase the students spacial and cultural knowledge.

Aboriginal Map (Anchor 2015)
Aboriginal Map
(Anchor 2015)
Standard Australian Map  (Ezilon 2015)
Standard Australian Map
(Ezilon 2015)

Aboriginals also express their mapping of Australia through their art. The purpose of Indigenous are was to, “teach, record events, tell stories about rituals and explain practices and beliefs” (Indigenous Instyle 2015). The image below is an example of a standard Indigenous map outlining tracks (dotted lines) and water holes (large circular symbols). These maps were drawn from the adventures they embarked on. The Indigenous people also marked out the surrounding tribes and food sources (Indigenous Instyle 2015).

Indigenous Art/Map (Indigenous Instyle 2015)
Indigenous Art/Map
(Indigenous Instyle 2015)

Indigenous people have a deep rooted connection with the land and treat it with a high level of respect. They only take from the land what they need, nothing more – something that is unheard of within the white Australian community. Indigenous people maintain the land due to their traditional knowledge and connection to sites of significance. Within the Indigenous culture, there are many sacred places which are treated respectfully and hold a lot of significance to their beliefs which prompt them to maintain these areas. Indigenous people also have a spiritual connection with the land which increase their desire to preserve and sustain its natural habitat/form (Splash ABC 2007).

The land is a crucial part to the Indigenous identity and the Indigenous people are a significant part of Australia’s culture as they are the core of Australia and contribute to Australia’s diverse range of cultures. Due to their contribution, it is obvious as to the importance of its presence within the Australian curriculum.

Reference List:

Anchor. 2015. “Statement of Respect.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.showmetheway.org.au/statement-of-respect.html.

Ezilon Maps. 2015. “Australia Map – Political Map of Australia.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.ezilon.com/maps/oceania/australia-maps.html.

Indigenous Instyle. 2015. “Australian Aboriginal Map.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.indigenousinstyle.com.au/australian-aboriginal-map/.

Splash ABC. 2007. “Indigenous Perspective on Sustainability.” Accessed May 38 2015. http://splash.abc.net.au/home#!/media/525907/indigenous-perspective-on-sustainability.

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIGHT ISLANDER HISTORIES AND CULTURES

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: ASIA AND AUSTRALIA’S ENGAGEMENT WITH ASIA

Australia has always had a strong relationship with the European countries but in recent decades Australia has established a continuously increasing social, political and economic bond with Asia and the Pacific. The largest region in the world is the Asian region as it covers nearly 17% of the world’s land surface and is home to almost 60% of the earth’s population. Asia is highly politically and economically unstable with nearly 65% of the world’s poorest populace living in the Asian Pacific region. Due to Australia’s close geographic proximity to Asia, it increases Australia’s ability to deliver aid to the country (Figure 1). Australia already actively provides help for south-east Asia regarding their social, economic and cultural development through organisations such as AusAID and ASEAN (YouTube 2013).

Figure 1 (Atkin and Connolly 2013)
Figure 1
(IHLO 2006)

Developing such close ties with the Asia Pacific region is beneficial  for both parties as the relationship is important to Australia’s security and, economic and political stability (YouTube 2013). The strong bond between Australia and Asia has positively contributed to Australia’s economic growth and stability. As can be seen in Figure 2, the trading between Australia and Asia have increased steadily and are predicted to further increase and exceed that of surrounding countries (Atkin and Connolly 2013). This trading relationship has resulted in an increase in profits within the Australian economy.

Figure 2 (Atkin and Connolly 2013)
Figure 2
(Atkin and Connolly 2013)

The time difference between Australia and the Asian region is very small which increases the interconnectivity between the two countries as well as making engagement easier.

It is clear that the engagement between Australia and  Asia is crucial to both countries social, economic and political development and therefore is a part of the Geography Australian Curriculum intergraded into educational institutions.

Reference List:

ASEAN. 2015. “Association of South East Asian Nations.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.asean.org.

Australian Curriculum. 2015. “Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/crosscurriculumpriorities/Asia-and-Australias-engagement-with-Asia.

Australian Government. 2015. “Australia’s Aid Program.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://dfat.gov.au/aid/Pages/australias-aid-program.aspx.

IHLO. 2006. “China’s Exportation of Labour Practices to Asia-Pacific.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.ihlo.org/CINTW/ChinaInAsiaPacific.html.

Tim Atkin and Ellis Connolly. 2013. “Australian Exports: Global Demand and the High Exchange Rate.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/bulletin/2013/jun/1.html.

World Time Zone. 2015. “Asia Time Zone Map.” Accessed May 28 2015. http://www.worldtimezone.com/time-asia24.php.

YouTube. 2013. “Australia’s Role in the Asia Pacific Region.” Accessed May 28 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePQythdj4jQ&noredirect=1.

CROSS-CURRICULAR PRIORITIES IN THE ACARA GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: ASIA AND AUSTRALIA’S ENGAGEMENT WITH ASIA